Date of Award

Summer 8-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

First Advisor

Marita Apter-Desselles


Testing measurement invariance (MI) is the most practical question to address in any analysis that involves multiple time points and/or groups. MI is a prerequisite to evaluate if an observed true change over time has occurred after an intervention. Communication Apprehension is one of the most widely studied constructs in the field of communication but has not been analyzed for MI. Leaders governing higher education institutions have implemented Quality Enhancement Plans (QEP) that strategically address workforce needs such intervention programs to improve student communication competency. Despite intervention efforts, industry still indicates a high demand for a workforce with communication competency. This study explores this issue by applying a tripartite model of change to assess the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma change in communication participants. The present study also conducted a secondary analysis using archival data from a communication intervention using college freshman. Factorial invariance was examined through the evaluation of three hierarchical levels of MI: configural, weak, and strong invariance. Results supported all three levels of MI; MI was upheld, and alpha change was determined to have occurred.