Michael Garza

Date of Award

Summer 8-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Psychology and Behavioral Sciences

First Advisor

Tony Young


A great deal of sexual interest and communication occurs at the nonverbal level in the form of gestures and signs. Nonverbal behaviors like smiles, winks, body postures, physical space, eye contact, clothing, among other cues and gestures, add subtle communiqués of romantic attention because the verbal expression of sexual interest can lead to embarrassment, confusion, and ambiguity. These nonverbal courtship behaviors are important and have been used to examine the dynamics of sexual initiation and interaction both in and outside of marriage (Gecas & Libby, 1976). A primary aim of the present study is to create a flirtation questionnaire that accurately captures the flirting behaviors of both men and women to help individuals who are not adept at understanding flirtation behaviors or experience difficulties interpreting or enacting flirtatious behaviors. As the literature currently stands, there exists a gap between behavioral items measured out in the field and self-reported behavioral items recorded via surveys. The results of the study found a four-factor solution making up the Basic Behavioral Flirting Questionnaire (BBFQ), and those factors included: nervousness, togetherness, lovemaking, and prosocial. The confirmatory factor analysis did not reach significance. Clinical implications are addressed in the discussion section with the interpretation of nervousness and prosocial flirting behavioral items. Future research and study limitations are also addressed in the discussion section.