Date of Award

Spring 5-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Edward Bell


This quasi-experimental study examined preservice teachers' attitudes, dispositions, and levels of self-efficacy regarding their ability to work with students who are blind or visually impaired effectively. This study assessed preservice teachers' attitudes of blindness using Bell and Silverman's (2011) Social Responsibility about Blindness Scale. Participants' dispositions were assessed with the Shippen, Crites, Houchins, Ramsey, and Simon's (2005) Preservice Inclusion Survey about students who are blind/visually impaired. Participants' self-efficacy beliefs were assessed using Tschannen-Moran and Hoy's (2001) Teachers' Sense of Efficacy (short-form) scale. Viewing the hypotheses through the lens of Bandura's (1971) Social Cognitive Theory, specifically Triadic Reciprocal Determinism, information was gathered about preservice teachers' personal factors [dispositions/attitudes], behaviors [efficacy], and environmental influences [intervention] regarding students who are blind/visually impaired. To analyze the pre-test data, analysis of several variance tests were conducted to determine if a statistically significant difference in test scores existed between the control and experimental groups’ attitudes, dispositions, and self-efficacy beliefs. Findings revealed that at the pre-test, both groups were statistically homogenous considering age, gender, and test scores on the SRBS, PSIS, and the TSES. At the post-test, the groups remained the same, and a Mann-Whitney U test rejected the premise that a significant difference existed in scores between the control and experimental group after the intervention.

Recommendations for future research are to embed information from the intervention in special education coursework, use a classroom platform to track participants’ level of access and participation, and/or conduct a mixed-methods study. The implication for the field of teacher preparation is to use the instruments to examine and investigate preservice teachers’ attitudes, dispositions, and self-efficacy beliefs about students with disabilities. Regarding the field of education, administrators in school districts can also offer the information from the intervention as professional development for teachers who are new to educating blind/visually impaired students as results show a trend of increased attitudes about blindness.