Date of Award

Fall 2002

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Curriculum, Instruction, and Leadership

First Advisor

Cathy Stockton


Using the Student Characteristics: Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) composite national percentile scores, repeating fourth grade, spring third grade Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) scores, socioeconomic status, race, gender, and preschool attendance and the School Characteristics: teacher degree level, teacher experience, teacher professional development, and school Title I status, this study employed a stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the best predictors of fourth grade scores on the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program for the 21st Century (LEAP 21). Students must pass the English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics portions of this test to be promoted to fifth grade. Having previously failed either portion of the LEAP 21 or having scored at or below the 30th percentile on the ITBS has identified a student for the LEAP Tutoring Program. This small-group, pull-out program provides 10 weeks of instruction prior to the LEAP 21. ITBS and DRA scores were the strongest predictors of all LEAP 21 scores. Repeating fourth grade, attending preschool, attending a Title I school, and being taught by a teacher who participated in professional development also predicted positive ELA LEAP 21 scores. Being male and being White were added to the ITBS and DRA scores for the Mathematics LEAP 21 predictive model. Combining the ELA and Mathematics LEAP 21 scores caused the gender and Title I variables to drop out leaving ITBS, DRA, race, preschool, and repeating fourth grade from the student characteristics and teacher professional development from the school characteristics as the predictive model.